Global Training Report Archives 1997-2016

 

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Top 13 Classic Historical Myths and Misconceptions about Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu 

@By Roberto Pedreira

July  25, 2016

Revised August 25, 2016

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The GTR Myths & Misconceptions articles have so far begun with a short introduction. This one deviates from the pattern. There is an introduction, but it's not at the beginning, it's at the end. In fact, it is Myth # 13. If you want to be conventional, FF to the end and read it first. Or wait. Doesn't matter, either way. The beginning and the ending are the same.

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Myth 1: In order to avoid confusion with judo, the original Gracie belt system (at least during the 151 Rio Branco era) consisted of white belt for students, dark blue belts for instructors, and light blue belts for masters ["Para não se confundir com o judô, não haviam graduações de faixa, o aluno era faixa branca, o instrutor era faixa azul escuro e o mestre azul clara."] Black and other belts were introduced when the first (unofficial, unapproved) jiu-jitsu federation was formed by the Carlos and Helio Gracie in 1968.[1

Fact: Carlos and Helio wore black belts in their Rio Branco academy and awarded black belts. So did George. In fact, they used them even before the Rio Branco academy opened on Wednesday, April 23, 1952 (see Choque 2, p. 80). When Masahiko Kimura, Toshio Yamaguchi, and Yukio Kato arrived in Rio, they were hailed by the press as legitimate black belts, while the Gracies were snubbed as "fake black belts". But not only the Gracies. Apparently there were many people, both Brazilian and Japanese, wearing belts that were not awarded by an organization that was authorized to award belts. The press believed that a genuine black belt was one that was awarded by the Kodokan. Thus,  Geo Omori, Yassuiti Ono, Takeo Yano and their graduated students, also had legitimate black belts. The Gracie brothers simply gave themselves belts....with the possible exception of Helio, as explained in Choque 1 and Choque 3.) The BJJ belt system now in place was created in 1968 (see Choque 3, chp. 8, and chp. 13). Of course, there were many people, primarily in São Paulo, who had legitimate black belts. Masahiko Kimura himself personally awarded a number of belts and dan [’i] ranks (up to 3rd dan) in 1951.

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Above: Helio (left) wearing blue belt, supervising Royce's preparations for first contest with Olympic judo champion Hidehiko Yoshida [‹g“cG•F] in 2002.

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Myth 2: There were no rules and no interruptions "back in the day of Carlos/Helios and even Carlson eras of the 40 & 50s a fight or challenge was taken as a test of manhood and mostly contested with almost no rules and definitely with no interruptions until someone surrendered" [2].

Fact: There were never any no-rules fights. There were always rules, many rules. Even supposedly no-rules fights [vale tudos] had rules and time-limits. The process of negotiating the rules was a large part of the pre-fight build-up (all thoroughly documented in Choque 1, Choque 2, and Choque 3). 

Myth 3: Helio was "diminutive" (i.e, tiny).  Gracie's ground style developed because "diminutive" Helio often found himself under his opponents. [3]

Fact: Helio was bigger than some of his opponents. He was on the bottom sometimes and on top other times. His guard style was nothing more or less than the ground style shown in Miyake and Tani's 1906 book The Game of Ju-Jitsu for the Use of Schools and Colleges. An alternative to the theory that Helio developed his ground style because he was diminutive is that he read Miyake and Tani's book. Another alternative is that he didn't have a unique ground style. To appreciate that, we need to compare Helio's performance in the ring with those of other fighters (George, Omori, Ono Brothers, Yano, etc.) against similar or the same opponents (for that, see Choque 1). Helio was not the only one who sometimes found himself on the bottom and he was as big, or bigger, or not significantly smaller than most of the fighters he faced, and he was no more diminutive than the other jiu-jitsu representatives of his two periods of ring activity (1932-1936, and 1950-1955). See Myth #2 here for more about that.  What did distinguish Helio Gracie's style from almost everyone else was his reference for stalemating rather than risk losing by going aggressively for the submission, and he adapted his overall contest strategy around that in combination with his realistic awareness of of his relative deficiency in stand-up skills (in other words, he accepted the fact that he was going to get thrown or put on bottom most of the time).

Myth 4: The vale tudo television program "Heróis do Rings" was cancelled because Gracie Academy representative João Alberto Barreto fractured an opponent's arm and viewers were shocked and appalled by the brutality of real fights.

Fact: João Alberto did break Jose Geraldo's arm on July 6, 1959. It was not the final fight of the series, but rather the first fight. The program was not cancelled. It went off the air April 1960 and subsequently was renamed and continued under new direction,  after a six month hiatus, following the new "safety" rules demanded by the sports authorities. (In this sense it was revamped, renamed, and overhauled rather than cancelled).  The matches were luta livre americana matches, staged by the Organização Carioca dos Lutadores, which consisted of most of the academies that had taken part in Heróis, minus the Gracies (a few of their representatives appeared, but seldom). Semi-legit luta livre americana gradually morphed into blatant pro wrestling. Jiu-Jitsu fighters who wanted to get paid in Rio took off their kimonos. Oswaldo Fada took an active role. Helio suspected that it was conspiracy against the Gracie family. He and Carlos subsequently promoted their own hardcore program of real fights in São Paulo that quickly failed due to lack of viewer interest. There was still vale tudo in Brazil, but in Baia and the interior, with a few exceptions between 1983 and 1999. (See Choque 2 and Choque 3 for full details.)

Myth 5. Oswaldo Fada team defeated Gracie Academy team.

Fact: The Gracie brothers (Carlos and Helio) attempted to promote jiu-jitsu as a sport along the lines of judo beginning from 1950, when they organized a tournament and invited four other academies to participate. The four academies were headed by Carlos Pereira, Azevedo Maia, (both former students of Carlos Gracie), Oswaldo Fada, and Augusto Cordeiro. After the first round, Pereira, Maia, and Cordeiro withdrew, charging that the Gracies were substituting fighters and entering professionals (specifically Pedro Hemeterio) in what was supposed to be an amateur sporting competition. Fada hung in, and in fact, competed himself, and had his arm dislocated. The Gracie brothers were criticized by the press for charging high admission prices to watch recreational players compete.

All of the competitors in the final round were Gracie Academy students, who thereby became the "Brazilian national champions." 

In 1955 a friendly competition was arranged between the academies of the Gracie brothers and Oswaldo Fada. Fourteen matches were held. The Gracie team won seven (7),  lost three (3), and drew four (4). George showed up to act as time-keeper. (see Choque 2 chp. 6 for details.)

Myth 6. Mitsuyo Maeda [‘O“cŒõ¢], better known in Brazil as Conde Koma, was a vale tudo fighter. Maeda fought all comers. Maeda fought boxers. Maeda had h2,000 fights without any losses ["“ñ‚O‚O‚O‰ñí‚¢•s”s‚ðŒÖ‚éh [4].  According to Reila Gracie, "His [Maeda's] style was aggressive. He would use kicks and punches to bring his opponent to the ground, and then quickly finish him with a 'lock' or choke". [5]

Fact: Reila seems to have drawn freely on Mark Gorsuchfs review of Norio Kohyama's 1997 book  ƒ‰ƒCƒIƒ“‚Ì–²[[ƒRƒ“ƒfƒRƒ}‘O“cŒõ¢“`, (without citing Gorsuch or the book he reviewed). In his review, Mark Gorsuch wrote, "Maedafs strategy in an anything goes fight was to set his opponent up with an elbow or low kick. He would then go in for a throw and finish his opponent with a choke or joint lockh.  

But this was only Mark Gorsuchfs opinion. He didn't get it from Kohyama's book. Kohyama only briefly describes Maeda's grappling matches in Europe, Mexico, and Cuba between 1907 and 1910 (pp. 107-109). Nothing about elbows or kicks is mentioned. If Mark Gorsuch didn't get this insight from the book he reviewed, where did he get it?  It wasn't from Gracies in Action or Pat Jordan's Playboy article. They didn't make any such claims about Maeda's fighting style (The Playboy article didn't even mention Maeda by name). The most likely culprit is internet discussion forums. Given that there was never any evidence that Maeda did such things (and Rorion never said he did), another process must have been at work. Back in the day, people watched the UFC and saw punches and low kicks, followed up by judo techniques such as guard and mount positions, armlocks, and chokes. Fans heard, or remembered reading somewhere, that the Gracies learned from Maeda (In Brazil, in 1951, Kimura was told that Helio learned personally from Maeda, Choque 2, chp, 2). They put 2 and 2 together. The Gracies must have learned about punches and kicks from Maeda. Therefore, Maeda must have taught them. Therefore it must have been a feature of his "style" or "strategy".  It's a nice theory. But there's one problem. All of Conde Komafs matches in Brazil and (the available evidence indicates) everywhere else were fought without striking. His style did not include elbows, punches or kicks. [6]

Maeda fought strictly according to jiu-jitsu rules, which prohibited striking of any kind and required the challenger to wear a kimono (Maeda had a few no-gi grappling matches in England, the USA, and Cuba, but not in Brazil). He invited challenges, but not just anyone was allowed to measure forces with Maeda or the other troupe members. Those few who wanted to have a go were required to register first, after which a date was set (to allow time for advertising, because such contests invariably drew larger than ordinary crowds and were subsequently reported in more than normal detail). Those few who occasionally accepted the challenge were totally unskilled young men, who were easily disposed of.

Almost all of Maeda's matches were with the other members of his troupe, one of whom (in 1915) was Sadakazu Uyenishi (aka Raku), author of a well-known jiu-jitsu textbook.  Members of Maeda's troupe sometimes "fought" wrestlers who were also employed by Paschoal Segreto (he employed boxers, luta romana wrestlers, luta livre [catch] wrestlers, savatistas, strongmen, comedians, as well as jiu-jitsu fighters and other entertainers of every type.) It stretches the meaning of "fight" to call their nightly performances fights. Sparring matches or exhibitions would be closer to the truth. Maeda declined to fight capoeiras who challenged him (see Choque 1, chps. 5 and 6 for details).

This is not to say that Maeda never entered the ring with a boxer, or someone described as a "boxer" which presumably meant he wore gloves and was going to try to knock Maeda's head off. That was reported by two reasonably reliable sources to have happened twice in London some time between February 1907 and  March 1908 and once again in Monterey, Mexico, some time between July 1909 and July 1910. Maeda won all three matches by unspecified joint-locking submission [ŠÖß‹Z]. The sources are a pair of obscure Japanese publications from 1912 and 1913. After Roberto succeeds in tracking them down, he will provide additional details (if any) in an upcoming GTR report.

Myth 7: Maeda taught the Gracies the secrets of real fighting (according to Helio himself, echoed by Rorion and Reila.)

Fact: It isn't clear what Rorion, Helio, or Reila mean by "real" and by "fighting". At various times they seem to mean "not fake" and "not sports".  So, sometimes a sports match was "real", while other times it was not "real". But all would agree that a vale tudo with closed fist, elbows, knees, and head-butts, and no restrictions on punching or kicking a downed opponent would qualify as "real" or at least "real enough" for present purposes. (Such fights were the exceptions in Brazil during the formative years, but there were a few, Tico Soledade vs. George Gracie, and Geo Omori vs. George Gracie, for examples, see Choque 1, chp. 13). Second, Maeda's fights were all either quasi-staged or completely staged jiu-jitsu theater performances or no-striking grappling matches (with a few possible exceptions, as noted in Myth #6). Maeda may have been an expert at real fighting (as opposed to judo), but there is no evidence of that from his stage and competition career (Maeda also trained in catch and kendo prior to Brazil). Whatever the Gracie brothers knew about real fighting and wherever they learned, it didn't come from Maeda. It must be said that George had spent time in boxing gyms at various points in his long career and used boxing (loosely defined) in some of his fights, and was even criticized for doing so (see Choque 1, chp 13). 

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Myth 8: Carlos Gracie was a boxing champion. And George Gracie was a boxing vice-champion. According to Carlos in 1961, he was a boxing champion in 1925 (Choque 3, chp 1). According to Reila Gracie, "Carlos was Brazilian amateur middleweight champion, and George was vice-champion" (my translation; see here for Reila's own words). According to Reila, quoting Carlos, he fought "almost 20 fights and was never hit even once." 

Fact: That would be an extraordinary, indeed miraculous, achievement for any boxer, if it actually happened. But there is no record of Carlos ever stepping into a boxing ring, at least not with boxing gloves on his hands. We know that because boxing began in Brazil, like the other combat sports, as a variety show attraction (in the theaters of Paschoal Segreto). A few amateur "sportsmen" took it up as a physical fitness activity. Professional boxing, on a small scale, began in 1921, introduced by immigrants. Organized amateur boxing began in 1928. Two Brazilian amateur boxing championships were held in 1928 and 1929 and were extensively covered in the Rio press. People who registered to fight, weighed-in, gloved-up, fought, and won titles were well covered. Carlos Gracie's name was never mentioned. George Gracie registered to compete (George was familiar with boxing gyms, taught his jiu-jitsu out of boxing gyms (at times), and had rudimentary boxing skills, as Choque 1 proves). But George didn't show up for the weigh-in and never fought a boxing match. However, Carlos and George's jiu-jitsu instructor Donato Pires does Reis did. Donato gloved up and was ready to rumble. His opponent didn't appear so Donato won by "walk-over". But that is more than Carlos can truthfully say. (See Choque 1, chp. 7 for details.) Carlos enhanced his personal autobiography with details from the life of his instructor, Donato Pires dos Reis on other occasions (documented in Choque 1). It appears that he was dipping into Donato's boxing resume as well (inflating one walk-over win into 20 victories without ever being hit).

Myth 9: Mitsuyo Maeda "Conde Koma" introduced Jiu-jitsu to Brazil.

Fact: Maeda was not the first jiu-jitsu (or more correctly, Kodokan affiliated judoka) to perform or teach in Brazil. The first was Sada Miyako (aka Miaco, aka Miako, who arrived in Rio under mysterious circumstances on December 31, 1908, along with a female partner, who performed with him. He was almost immediately hired by Paschoal Segreto to perform in his chain of variety show theaters. He was challenged by a capoeira (capoeirista) named Cyriaco, and was knocked out (the incident was first uncovered by a capoeiragem researcher named Andre Lace Lopes in 2006, but he mistakenly thought that Miyako was Conde Koma; the details of Sada Miyako and his partner's tenure in Rio are described in Choque 1, chp. 3). Later, Paschoal Segreto brought Maeda and his several troupes of jiu-jitsu lutadores to work in his theaters in São Paulo, Rio, and what was then called Nichteroy (details can be found in Choque 1, chps. 5 and 6.)

Myth 10: Maeda was the first to teach jiu-jitsu in Brazil.

Fact: Sada Miyako taught a general sportsman/capoeira expert named Mario Aleixo (according to Aleixo himself without offering any proof).  Later Aleixo taught jiu-jitsu in Rio, even before Maeda arrived, sometimes collaborating with a Japanese instructor. Amateur jiu-jitsu matches were held in late 1909. Japanese navy ships visited Rio and sailors demonstrated jiu-jitsu and other Japanese arts for dignitaries. (See Choque 1, chp. 7).

Myth 11: The Gracies were the first Brazilians to spread jiu-jitsu in Brazil.

Fact: Mario Aleixo was the first. Unfortunately, his march to martial arts immortality was derailed when he met a young man named George Gracie. The full story is told in Choque 1, chps. 4 and 11).  

Myth 12: Rickson Gracie was victorious in 430 fights and never lost.

Fact: By October 1998, just before Rickson vs. Takada II, the number of Rickson's supposed victories had risen to 460 (according to Karate Bushido magazine, below). Reports differed as to whether they were total victories (in any type of fight), or specifically in vale tudo contests. Rickson himself said (in 2005, here) that if we included fights of every type (including dojo challenges, or "desafios") the number might actually be 1,000 or more. And that is with no losses. He didn't know the exact number. It was too many to count. He hadn't been keeping track all these years.

So there are two answers. One is that if we are talking about every type of match, including sparring sessions, then the number might be vast. But the number of losses is more than zero. Rickson conceded that he lost a sambo match to Ron Tripp. Rickson didn't think it really counted though, because no one explained the rules to him before the match.[7

If we are talking about vale tudos, then the answer is known. Rickson was undefeated in October 1998, but the number of victories was considerably less than 460 (it was 13, to be exact).

How did this myth arise? It arose in October 1995 as part of the hype for a Brazilian vale tudo tournament known as Desafio Internacional Vale Tudo Brazil Open 95. The concept behind it was that fighters from various countries would eliminate each other and the last man standing would qualify to meet Rickson. In order for that to make sense, Rickson would need to be portrayed as superhuman. Accordingly, Rickson was described as the "undefeated world champion with 430 fights" ["Campeao mundial invicto a 430 lutas RICKSON GRACIE"]. Rickson was described as the "Great Big Dragon" ["O Grande Dragão"], possibly a play on Bruce Lee's nickname. He was also described as "The King of the Mats with 430 victories" ["O Rei do tatame, soma 430 vitorias"], and with 430 fights and an equal number of victories ["forma 430 lutas e o mesmo numero de vitorias"].

In the above, the "fights" [lutas] were not specified. Luta does not necessarily mean value tudo (or any specific type of contest or struggle for that matter). The vale tudo myth began on Tuesday, October 24, 1995. On the evening of that day Rickson was scheduled to appear, via an interview taped earlier in Santa Monica, USA, on the popular late night TV show Gente de Expressão, hosted by Bruna Lombardi.  In an afternoon newspaper article about the show, Rickson was praised as a man who no other man on the planet could beat. Rickson (it went on) had 430 fights and 430 victories in vale tudo ["não há lutador no planeta capaz de derrotar o homem, que ostenta em seu curriculo 430 lutas a 430 vitorias, na modalidade do vale tudo"]. (For details, sources, and an extensive glossary of fight-related Portuguese vocabulary, see Choque 3, esp. chp, 35, and app. 6).

Obviously, the 430 number was intended merely to hype a tournament (which did take place, although Rickson ended up not participating). The addition of "vale tudo" to the "record" was the inspiration no doubt of another marketing person who knew nothing about fighting, but apparently must have assumed that all of Rickson's fights were vale tudo. Between October 1995 and October 1998, Rickson had one more fight, beating pro wrestler Nobuhiko Takada. Disregarding elementary arithmetic, Karate Bushido boosted Rickson's record by 29 instead of one. (And to leave no knot untied, Rickson had two more fights after that, Takada again, and Masakatsu Funaki in 2000, and then retired. Funaki talks about the fight here.)

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Above: Rickson Gracie (October 1998), winner of 460 fights. Will he beat Takada again October 11?

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Myth 13. "Gracie [Helio] introduced a series of adaptations to traditional Japanese Jiu-Jitsu that emphasized leverage and position as a way to compensate for size differences among opponents." So said The New York Times on January 30, 2009 (pg. B9)

Fact. Helio never studied traditional Japanese "Jiu-Jitsu" so he couldn't adapt it. He also never said that he did. What he said (here) was that because he couldn't imitate Carlos' power-based techniques, he began  learning jiu-jitsu (or what he thought was jiu-jitsu) "in his own way". He didn't adapt Japanese "jiu-jitsu", he adapted Carlos' power-based jiu-jitsu by using science, such as force and leverage (here). 

This may seem like beating a dead horse (if you've read Choque, Jiu-Jitsu in the South Zone, or the previous Myths & Misconceptions, this won't be new) but it brings up an important point. As always, we need to ask where the information came from. The NY Times obit gives a clue: The Gracie Jiu-Jitsu Academy Web site. Obit writers are rarely experts in the field of the dead person's eminence. So, where do they get their information from, especially on what is sometimes short notice? According to one NY Times obit writer (here), they get it from family and friends of the deceased[8]. And, apparently, from academy web sites.

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Notes

1.De Azevedo, Luiz Guilherme C. A., Souto, Fabio Pinto, & Rocha, Marcelo. (1997). A História do Jiu Jitsu através dos tempos. Escola de Educação Fisica e Desportos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Centro de Ciências da Saude, p. 21 and p. 27.

2.@See here

3. Downey, Greg. (2007). Producing Pain Techniques and Technologies in No-Holds-Barred Fighting. Social Studies of Science, 37(2), 201-226, p. 205. Downey's article has (as of July 17, 2016) been cited by 76 other scholarly books and articles, most of which have also been profusely cited. But where did Downey get this information about Helio's diminutiveness and its alleged role in the creation of guard techniques? His sources were Renzo Gracie, Royler Gracie, Kid Peligro, and John Danaher.

 4. ‚‹´GK Takahashi@Hiroyuki. (1999). _“¹‰Æ‚Ì‚Ý‚½ŠJ‘ñ‚Ö‚Ì–². In •¨Œê\‚Q‚O¢‹Il•¨“`B“Œ‹žFŠ”Ž®‰ïŽÐ‚¬‚ス‚¢, p. 82. It is worth observing that despite claims of enormous numbers of fights, up to 2,000 in some cases, specific opponents, places, or dates are seldom mentioned. Takahashi for example mentions just one,  against a Greco wrestler nick-named "Butcher Boy". 

5. According to Reila (p. 37) gSeu estilo ao lutar era agressivo\usava chutes e soccos para lever o adversario ao solo, onde rapidamente o finalizava com uma chave ou um estrangulamentoh. (Gracie, Reila. (2008). Carlos Gracie: O Criador de uma Dinastia).  For a synopsis/commentary on Reila's book, see Here.

6. A forthcoming GTR Myths & Misconceptions article will discuss what Japanese researchers have said about Maeda's ring career and his judo activities in Brazil.  

7. Poor Ron Tripp. The only man with a verified victory over Rickson (not counting Relson,  see Choque 3, chp. 24), and no one will give him credit. According to Rickson, in two interviews with a Japanese magazine called Free Fight in 1997 and 1998, his loss to Ron Tripp didn't really count because he didn't understand the rules (both interviews are or were at one time available on bjj.org.)

8. Before publishing the present article on July 25 (Japan Time), Roberto contacted (on July 21, Japan Time) The New York Times, specifically their star obit writer Margalit Fox (based on a this interview and this interview). Margalit Fox responded within about 12 hours saying she had nothing to do with the obit. Assistant Obit Editor Peter Keepnews, also within 12 hours, informed Roberto that the Helio Gracie obit was contributed by an anonymous Associated Press (AP) reporter and suggested that Roberto contact AP for more specific information, which Roberto promptly did. On July 26 Dan Slotnik, also from the NY Times, again advised Roberto to contact AP, which Roberto had already done, as indicated above. As of July August 21, 2016, AP has not replied.

The essential point applies nevertheless because the NY Times printed the Helio Gracie obit. According to the information provided in the brief obit, either the AP reporter just happened to be browsing the Gracie Academy web site, or someone with an interest in the matter sent AP a heads up (which is easy to do, AP welcomes it).@

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Concerning how and why myths and misconceptions originate and spread, the following might shed some light (they're just a few among many others, and not exclusively about martial arts. For the books, amazon.com has them, as should any good library; for the articles, try google scholar, or even contact the author's directly).

Capener, S. D. (1995). Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of Tfaegwondo and Their Historical Causes. Korea Journal, 35(4), 80-94.

Geary, Patrick J. (2002). The Myth of Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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Gluck, Carol. (1985). Japanfs Modern Myths: Ideology in the Late Meiji Period. Princeton : Princeton University Press.

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Johnson, Noah C. G. (2012). The Japanization of Karate?: Placing an Intangible Cultural Practice. Journal of Contemporary Anthropology, 3(1), 4.  

Keene, Donald. (2002). The Emperor of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press.

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Koonz, Claudia. (2003). The Nazi Conscience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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Lilienfield, Scott O., Lynn, Steven Jay, Rusico, John, & Beyerstein, Barry, L. (2010). 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Loewen, James W. Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong. The New Press, 2008.

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Pullum, Geoffrey K. "The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax." Natural Language & Linguistic Theory (1989): 275-281.

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Skya, Walter. (2009). Japanfs Holy War: The Ideology of Radical Shinto Ultranationalism. Durham : Duke University Press.

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Sungkyun, C., Udo, M., & Dohee, N. (2012). The Available Evidence Regarding Taekkyön and its Portrayal as a "Traditional Korean Martial Art." Acta Koreana, 15(2), 341-368.

Udo, M., Sungkyun, C., & Taek-Yong, K. (2014). Evidence of Taekwondo's Roots in Karate: An Analysis of the Technical Content of Early Taekwondo Literature. Korea Journal, 54(2), 150-178.   

Ravina, Mark J. "The Apocryphal Suicide of Saigō Takamori: Samurai, Seppuku, and the Politics of Legend." The Journal of Asian Studies 69.03 (2010): 691-721.

Rosenberg, Fulvia, & Andrade, Leandro Feitosa. (1999). Ruthless Rhetoric: Child and Youth Prostitution in Brazil. Childhood, 6 (1), 113-131.

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Previous Myths and Misconceptions

Four Questions & Answers about BJJ History

Top 30 Myths

Myths in GIA 1

Myths in Playboy

Myths in GIA 2

The Backstory

Next up: (1) "The Yataro Handa Story: Does BJJ really come from Handa Jiu-Jitsu?" Coming September 2016. (2) "What Do Japanese Language Sources Say about Helio Gracie and the Origins of BJJ?" (coming September or October 2016).

 

And don't miss these classic Helio Gracie interviews:

Interviewed by Nishi Yoshinori in 1994 (with Rorion Gracie)

Interviewed by Dalila Magarian in Brazil in 2001

Interviewed in Japan in 2002 (with Pedro Valente Jr. and Royce Gracie)

Several new Helio Gracie interviews will soon be posted (previously published in Japanese only). Join GTR mailing list if you'd like to be notified.

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(c) 2016, Roberto Pedreira. All rights reserved. @

Revised slightly (note 8), August 21, 2016.

Revised (Myth #6) August 25, 2016.

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GTR Publications

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Choque 1, 3rd Edition (June 1, 2016)

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Choque 3, 1961-1999

(Updated June 1, 2016)

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Choque 2, 1950-1960 

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Jiu-Jitsu in the South Zone, 1997-2008 

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Digital Editions are also available

GTR Archives 1997-2016

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